GLOBAL CO-CHAIR, INTERNATIONAL LITIGATION & ARBITRATION DEPARTMENT, CHAIR, UNITED NATIONS PRACTICE GROUP - Foley Hoag
Christina Hioureas is a partner and Global Co-Chair of the firm's International Litigation & Arbitration Department, and Chair of the firm’s United Nations practice group. Christina represents States, private and State-owned entities, and individuals on international disputes and public international law matters and advises States on matters before the United Nations and its bodies. She also serves as arbitrator in international disputes.
Described as a “dominant force in the international arbitration community” and “a skilled investigator, case strategist, and disciplined team leader,” Hioureas has been recognized in Chambers & Partners - Global and USA: Arbitration, Public International Law and Arbitrators, respectively (2020-23), as a “Most Highly Regarded Partner–The Americas” by Who’s Who Legal (2023) and “Attorney of the Year” by the Hellenic Lawyers Association (2022). Hioureas has acted for and advised States including Bangladesh, Bulgaria, Chile, Croatia, Cyprus, Ghana, Greece, Guyana, Japan, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Mauritius, Montenegro, Qatar, Sierra Leone and Uzbekistan and various State-owned and private entities across jurisdictions and industries. Her experience includes:
As counsel in international commercial arbitration (ICC, ICDR, AAA, SIAC, LCIA, UNCITRAL and Swiss Rules) and investment treaty disputes (ICSID, UNCITRAL) ranging from construction, hospitality, taxation, and shareholder matters to gas pricing/re-opener, energy supply, and solar power arbitrations under investment treaties and foreign investment laws, as well as joint venture, EPC, sale and purchase, power purchase, joint development, offtake, and long-term lease agreements, with amounts at stake from $120 million to over $10 billion.
As Presiding, Sole, Emergency and Co-Arbitrator in disputes under UNCITRAL, ICC, ICDR, LCIA, and AAA Rules relating to construction, natural gas, renewables, hospitality, franchise, supply chain, pharmaceuticals, fashion, technology, civil rights, and cyber-security. She is also a CEDR-certified mediator.
As counsel to States before the United Nations (Security Council and General Assembly) and before regional human rights tribunals and the International Court of Justice relating to decolonization, jus cogens, law of occupation, protection of the environment during armed conflict, sea level rise, and rendition.
As counsel in claims before U.S. courts under the Alien Tort Statute and the Torture Victim Protection Act in cases alleging extrajudicial killing, torture, cruel treatment, arbitrary detention, and crimes against humanity; Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act in connection with embassies and consulates; and defense and enforcement of arbitral awards under the Federal Arbitration Act.
She is a U.S. member of the ICC Commission on Arbitration, delegate of Greece to the International Law Association’s Committee on International Law and Sea Level Rise, Term Member of the Council on Foreign Relations and Executive Council member of the American Society of International Law.
The Hague Academy of International Law, 2011
University of California Berkeley School of Law Boalt Hall, J.D., American Jurisprudence Award - International Law, 2007
University of California, Berkeley, B.A., highest honors, 2004
Bar and Court Admissions
England and Wales
U.S. Supreme Court
U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit
U.S. Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit
U.S. District Court for the Southern District of New York
U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California
International Investment Arbitration
Niko Resources Ltd. v. Bangladesh Oil Gas and Mineral Corporation and Bangadesh Petroleum Exploration and Production Company. Counsel to Bangladesh State entities concerning the causes and impact of two natural gas well blowouts and the resulting health, environmental, and natural resource losses.
Bangladesh Oil Gas and Mineral Corporation and Bangladesh Petroleum Exploration and Production Company v. Niko Resources Ltd. Counsel in annulment proceeding relating to, inter alia, corruption claims.
Niko Exploration (Block 9) Ltd. v. Bangladesh and Bangladesh Oil and Gas Mineral Corp. Counsel to Bangladeshi State-owned oil and gas company in a contract-based ICSID arbitration proceedings.
Krisenergy v. Bangladesh and Petrobangla. Counsel to Bangladesh and Petrobangla in ICSID contractual arbitration arising from assessed taxes.
Raiffeisen Bank International AG and Raiffeisen Bank Austria d.d. v. Republic of Croatia. Counsel to Croatia in an UNCITRAL arbitration under the Croatia-Austria BIT arising from alleged investments in Croatia’s financial sector.
Adria Group B.V. and Adria Group Holding B.V. v. Republic of Croatia. Counsel to Croatia in an ICSID arbitration under the Croatia-Netherlands BIT arising from alleged investments in a retail enterprise in Croatia.
Patel Engineering Ltd. V. Republic of Mauritius. Counsel to Mauritius in an UNCITRAL arbitration administered by the PCA brought by an Indian investor relating to the commercial termination of a land development agreement.
Counsel to State. Analyzed potential investment claim in energy sector for State and developed strategy to deter investor from filing arbitration claim.
Wuxi T. Hertz Technologies Co. Ltd. and Jetion Solar Co. Ltd. v. Hellenic Republic. Counsel to Greece in an UNCITRAL arbitration under the Greece–China BIT involving alleged investments in a photovoltaic project in Greece.
Baymina Enerji Anonim Şirketi v Boru Hatları ile Petrol Taşıma Anonim Şirketi. Counsel to French company in ICSID arbitration against a Turkish State-owned entity relating to breach of contract with respect to natural gas sales.
Koch Minerals Sarl and Koch Nitrogen International Sarl v. Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela. Counsel to private entity in an ICSID arbitration involving the expropriation of a plant and related offtake agreement.
OI European Group B.V. v. Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela. Counsel in ICSID arbitration under the Netherlands-Venezuela BIT related to the expropriation of a glass plant.
Karmer Marble Tourism Construction Industry and Commerce LLC v. Georgia. Counsel in an ICSID arbitration involving issues of expropriation of a toll road and casino hotel services concession.
European Entity v. Eastern European State. Counsel to energy company in an investment arbitration claim relating to expropriation of energy storage facilities.
US Company v. North American State. Advised on NAFTA claim involving due process claims with respect to an acquisition and related court actions.
Spanish Company v. Latin American State. Served as secondary counsel on an ICSID claim regarding expropriation of an airline.
Asian Company v. Middle Eastern State. Served as secondary counsel on an ICSID claim regarding expropriation of an oil refinery plant.
Commercial Arbitration (ICC, ICDR, AAA, SIAC, SCC, LCIA, UNCITRAL, Swiss Rules)
Counsel to a Middle Eastern construction company in a complex ICC construction dispute arising from the construction of a sewage plant.
Counsel to African State and State-owned entity in energy dispute.
Counsel to an Asian state-owned entity in an UNCITRAL arbitration administered by SIAC arising from drilling and exploration agreements of natural gas reserves.
Counsel to an Asian state-owned entity in an UNCITRAL gas price reopener/revision arbitration brought by a French entity.
Counsel to Latin-American energy company in a force majeure contractual dispute in connection with the effects of COVID-19 on a petroleum storage and throughput agreement and related reallocation and refurbishment agreements.
Counsel to an Asian state-owned entity in ICC arbitration involving a large-scale solar power project and force majeure claims.
Counsel to State-owned entity in ICSID commercial arbitration relating to the purported res judicata effect of an ICC award.
Counsel to Latin-American energy company in a potential LCIA arbitration involving changing market fundamentals in pricing.
Counsel to Greek State-owned entity in an ICC arbitration arising from changing market fundamentals in connection with the decoupling of oil and gas pricing and claims regarding gas shortages claims.
Counsel to Greek entity in an ICC arbitration arising from a gas sale and purchase agreement and related interconnector pipeline treaty.
Counsel to a US-based energy company in an arbitration under the Swiss Rules in a dispute arising out of power plant construction projects in Russia.
Counsel to various Silicon Valley tech companies in a series of interrelated ICDR and ICC international arbitration disputes alleging breach of contract and fraud.
Counsel to private entity in an international mediation before the ICC Dispute Resolution Board regarding a Ugandan project.
Counsel to European State-owned energy entity in a set aside proceeding before the Svea Court of Appeals.
Selective Arbitral Appointments (ICC, UNCITRAL, ICDR, AAA, LCIA)
Presiding, sole, emergency, and co-arbitrator in international and domestic arbitrations, including under UNCITRAL, ICC, ICDR, AAA, and LCIA Rules; seated in jurisdictions including The Netherlands, Luxembourg, London, Paris, Sweden, New York, Washington, D.C., California, Florida, and Montreal, Canada; applying laws of Cyprus, Liechtenstein, Switzerland, England & Wales, Canada, New York, California, Delaware, Florida, and Washington, D.C.
Sole arbitrator in a series of related AAA arbitrations involving the technology and hospitality sectors.
Presiding arbitrator in an ICC arbitration relating to the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the hospitality sector and claims under contractual excuse doctrines.
Emergency arbitrator in an ICDR arbitration involving an alleged Ponzi scheme and related request for an injunction involving parties in China and the U.S.
Sole arbitrator in AAA dispute involving questions of cybersecurity in connection with the removal of a CEO.
Co-arbitrator in an ICDR arbitration involving breach of contract and fraud claims arising from a joint venture agreement and related agreements involving parties in the U.S., the Ukraine, and Cyprus.
Co-arbitrator in LCIA dispute alleging breach of a sale and purchase agreement and related cybersecurity claims.
Sole arbitrator in a AAA arbitration under the U.S. Civil Rights Act in connection with alleged discriminatory conduct on the basis of race and ethnic origin.
Sole arbitrator in an ICC breach of contract case involving the fashion industry.
Sole arbitrator in an ICC arbitration involving the pharmaceutical sector.
Co-arbitrator in an ICC arbitration arising from an aerospace purchase agreement involving parties in the U.S., Germany, and Panama.
Sole arbitrator in an UNCITRAL arbitration arising from the termination of a North-South American franchise agreement and related intellectual property rights.
Proceedings Before the International Court of Justice and Regional Tribunals
Legal Consequences of the Separation of the Chagos Archipelago from Mauritius in 1965 (request for Advisory Opinion). Counsel to Mauritius in advisory opinion proceedings before the International Court of Justice on whether the decolonization of Mauritius was lawfully completed in light of the United Kingdom’s excision and retention of the Chagos Archipelago.
Guyana v. Venezuela (Case Concerning the Arbitral Award of 3 October 1899). Counsel to Guyana in case brought to confirm the international boundary between the two States as determined by an arbitral award whose validity Venezuela has challenged.
Allegations of Genocide under the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (Ukraine v. Russian Federation). Advising intervening State on declaration of intervention.
Pilav v. Bosnia and Herzegovina (European Court of Human Rights). Counsel to an intervening party in a claim before the ECtHR regarding the Dayton Accord power sharing Constitutional structure and the right to run for office and vote.
Prosecutor v. Im Chaem (Extraordinary Chambers in the Court of Cambodia). Counsel to an intervening party in a case involving crimes against humanity, torture, cruel treatment, and extrajudicial killings.
Balkan Entity v. Balkan State (European Court of Human Rights). Counsel to consortium of companies in a claim before the European Court of Human Rights involving the unlawful tender of a public works contract and the right to a fair trial.
International Litigation in U.S. Courts
Esso Expl. And Prod. Nigeria Ltd. V. Nigerial National Petroleum Corp. Represented Attorney General of Nigeria in arbitral award enforcement action.
Indian Entity – enforcement action. Advising company incorporated in India in arbitral award enforcement strategies in the U.S. and France.
Chowdhurry v. Bangladesh Telecommunication Regulatory Commission (S.D.N.Y). Counsel to Bangladesh entity in telecoms dispute.
Doe v. Chiquita Brands Int.’l, Inc. (U.S. Supreme Court). Counsel to intervening party brief before the U.S. Supreme Court regarding the legal standard for lifting protective orders in cases involving survivors of torture and other grave crimes.
Newman v. Permanent Mission of the Republic of Bulgaria to the United Nations (SDNY). Represented the Republic of Bulgaria in a tort claim before the Southern District of New York under the Foreign Sovereignty Immunities Act.
Ahmed v. Magan (SD Ohio). Counsel to the Legal Adviser to the President of Somalia in a torture claim brought under the Alien Tort Statute/Torture Victims Protection Act against a former member of the Siad Barré dictatorship.
Jara v. Barrientos (MD Fla). Counsel to the family of the late folk musician, Victor Jara, in an Alien Tort Statute/Torture Victim Protection Act claim involving crimes against humanity, extrajudicial killing, torture, cruel treatment, arbitrary detention against a former member of the Pinochet dictatorship.
BG v. Argentina (U.S. Supreme Court). Counsel to the USCIB in amicus curiae brief on preconditions to international investment arbitration.
In re Hammond (Ca). Argued a petition for habeas corpus and the secured release of a victim of intimate partner battering and its effects who was wrongfully convicted of second-degree murder.
California Association of Mental Health Patients’ Rights Advocates v. California. Counsel in a disability discrimination claim against California.
UN Advisory and Other Sovereign Representation
African State: Advised State on interventions before Security Council in connection with climate change, peace and security.
European State: Drafted interventions on sea level rise, the law of occupation, protection of the environment during armed conflict, and jus cogens.
Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America: Prepared submissions before relevant UN bodies on the protection of cultural property, the freedom of expression, and protection of religious minorities.
African State: Advised State on the preparation of a General Assembly resolution and supporting memoranda in support of seeking an advisory opinion before the International Court of Justice.
European State: Advised State on various issues involving diplomatic mission.
African State: Advised State on various issues involving diplomatic mission.
Private Entity: Advised private entity in UNCITRAL arbitration and negotiations with UNDP regarding price revision of peacekeeping supply agreements.
Middle Eastern State: Advised State on human rights UN advisory matter.
Asian State: Advised Asian State on various human rights matters before the UN Security Council.
ECOSOC entity: Advised ECOSOC entity on climate change and law of the sea matters before UN and related underwater pharmaceuticals research project.
Various States: Advised various States on matters before UNCITRAL WGs II/ III.
Federal Republic of Somalia: Advised Somalia on questions of international law and the draft Provisional Constitution.
Middle Eastern State: Advised a Middle Eastern state on sovereign immunity and international human rights law as part of capacity-building training.
Asian State: Advised an Asian state on claims to hydrocarbon royalty by a provincial government and questions of law of the sea.
European State: Advised a State on potential claims relating to state succession and unlawful expropriation.
Teaching Staff, University of Piraeus, Department of International & European Studies - Energy Strategy, Law & Economics Program (2018-2020)
Adjunct Associate Professor of Law, Fordham University (2013-2016)
Graduate Student Instructor, UC Berkeley, Peace & Conflict Studies and Political Science Departments (2004-2007)
"Climate, State, and Sovereignty: Self-Determination and Sea Level Rise," (with A. Torres Camprubí), Liechtenstein Institute on Self-Determination at Princeton University (2021)
“Legal and Political Considerations with respect to the Disappearance of States,” (with A. Torres Camprubi), in New Knowledge and Changing Circumstances in the Law of the Sea (Brill, 2020).
“Law and Practice,” Chambers Global Practice Guide – International Arbitration, Second Edition (2019) (with D. Schimmel).
“The Singapore Convention on International Settlement Agreements Resulting from Mediation: A New Way Forward?” Berkeley J. Int’l L (2019).
Chambers Global Practice Guide: International Commercial Arbitration, authored chapter on arbitration under U.S. law (2019) (with D. Schimmel)
"A New Legal Framework for the Enforcement of Settlement Agreements Reached Through International Mediation: UNCITRAL Concludes Negotiations on Convention and Draft Model Law," EJIL Talk, (2018) (with S. Tewarie).
"Framework Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Cyprus and the Government of the Arab Republic of Egypt Concerning the Development of Cross-Median Line Hydrocarbons Resources," International Maritime Boundaries, 1-15 (2017) (with B. Guthrie).
NATURAL RESOURCES AND THE LAW OF THE SEA, Juris Publishing (2017) (co-editor with L. Martin and C. Salonidis)
"Sovereignty Disputes and Offshore Development of Oil and Gas," Journal of Energy and Natural Resources Law (2017) (with B. Guthrie).
“International Commercial Arbitration: Greece,” Global Arbitration Review (2016 and 2018).
“International Commercial Arbitration: Cyprus,” Global Arbitration Review (2016).
"Kiobel v. Royal Dutch Petroleum: Is Corporate Liability Under the Alien Tort Statute On its Way Out?," Berkeley J. Int’l L. Publicist, Vol. 9, (2011).
"Transatlantic Environmental Regulation-Making," in in Transatlantic Regulatory Cooperation: The Shifting Roles of the EU, the US and California, Edward Elgar Publications (2011) (with B.Cain).
"Glamis Gold, Ltd v. United States: A Case Study on Disclosure Procedure in International Arbitration," 2 World Arb & Mediation Rev 3 (2008) (with V. Camerer).
"US Discovery in Aid of International Legal Proceedings: Developments Since the Intel Decision Under Section 1782," 4 Deutsch-Amerikanische Juristen-Vereinigung 177, (2006) (with P. Thompson).
"Behind the Scenes of Protocol No. 14: Politics in Reforming the European Court of Human Rights," 24 Berkeley J. Int’l L 718 (2006).
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